Food security, critical environmental services, social cohesion, and economic development are all dependent on healthy and productive soils in most African countries. Africa has some of the world’s most fertile locations, and it is from this bounty that the world’s most culturally rich foods, herbs, and natural spices are created.
Herbs and spices have played an essential role throughout history. Many were known for their healing powers even before they were used in cookery. Current study has shown that several of these have significant health benefits. In cooking, spices, spice seeds, and herbs are used to add flavor, scent, and depth of flavor. They may not provide much nutritious value in the little quantities required to produce gourmet meals, but they do stimulate appetite, add zest to food, and improve flavors. Let’s take a look at 5 of Africa’s top spices.
Ir is a fermented seasoning used by Nigerian tribes for centuries, particularly the Yoruba and Edo. It’s prepared by fermenting and processing locust beans (Parkia biglobosa), and it comes in whole or mashed form in both fresh and dried forms. The earthy scents of the seasoning are attributed to the tannins formed during the fermentation process, which are generally described as reminiscent of bad body odor and stinky feet. Despite its earthy aroma, okro soup, efo riro stew, ewedu soup, egusi soup, gbegiri soup, and ogbono soup are all popular traditional stews and soups in Nigeria. According to Pulse.ng, IR has therapeutic benefits such as wound healing, hypertension therapy, immune system booster, respiratory infection treatment, and gastrointestinal issues treatment.
Pepper from an alligator
Alligator pepper, also known as “Grains of Paradise,” is a powerful, pungent, and spicy West African spice. It’s a ginger family member that looks like a fruity cardamon pod. Alligator pepper is also used in African culture. The Yorubas of Nigeria, for example, use it frequently at child naming rites and other ceremonial celebrations. In West Africa, alligator pepper is commonly used to flavor soups, vegetables, and stews, but it can also be used to season lamb, poultry, and cow dishes.
A dab of alligator pepper on grilled steaks is a winning mix. In addition to peppercorns, the entire plant is used for medical purposes, according to Today.com. The rhizomes (also known as rootstalks) have been used as antibacterial and antifungal treatments for centuries; the long leaves are used to treat measles and gastrointestinal problems, and the seeds have anti-inflammatory properties. Calcium, magnesium, and zinc are among the minerals found in alligator pepper.
l-Threonine is one of the amino acids found in alligator pepper that is needed to make proteins; humans do not produce this amino acid naturally, therefore we must obtain it through our food. Alligator pepper contains antioxidants such as flavonoids, tannins, and terpenoids, which have benefits such as scavenging free radicals that cause inflammation in the body.
From the end of April to the beginning of May, local women in the same Moroccan hamlet located in the foothills of the eastern Anti-Atlas mountain range harvest and process alnif cumin. The cumin plant is frequently harvested before it reaches full maturity.
This ensures that no seeds are lost. In addition, the technique aids in the preservation of the green color. Cumin is harvested and dried in the shade before being beaten to extract the seeds. After that, the farmers sift through the seeds to remove any dust or other debris that has accumulated.
This cumin species, according to Pan African, is distinguished by its great quality and rich perfume and can be used whole or crushed to enhance the flavor of classic Moroccan meals such as couscous, tajine, and soups. The shelf life of these dried leaves is two years. The seeds are crushed in a traditional mill to make Alnif Cumin powder.
Dried Nettles from Mau Forest
For years, the Mau forest’s native populations in the Rift Valley have been gathering leaves and plants from the surrounding area. Nettles, for example, have long been a staple of Kenyan cuisine, even during droughts. However, since the early 1980s, their use has been drastically reduced. This is due to rising deforestation and the disappearance of information about their culinary uses.
As a result, a group of women in the Molo highlands have begun to grow nettles at altitudes ranging from 2000 to 3000 meters, with the best results attained on exceptionally fertile terrain in areas where cattle used to graze. According to Taste Atlas, they are hand-collected from March to June and September to October. The nettles are washed in water after picking to reduce the stinging effect before being sold fresh or dried and ground into a powder. The leaves are used in a number of traditional meals, including mukimo (mashed potatoes, corn, beans, and nettles), which is cooked using the leaves.
They are combined with millet flour in the local porridge. Fresh veggies, medicinal herbs, and herbal tea are all options. They’re also recommended for nursing mothers as a dietary supplement (the leaves contain 6 percent protein, 3.5 percent minerals, and are a rich source of iron and Vitamin A). The dry powder can also be diluted with water and sprinkled on the soil to improve its fertility. While young plant leaves are usually sold fresh at local markets, dried nettles in powder form have a bigger market and can be purchased throughout the year.
Peri-peri is the most well-known African spice, and it’s used all over the world in rubs for chicken, fish, steaks, and other meats, as well as vegetables. This African spice is widely used in various restaurant chains in the Americas and the United Kingdom, and it is widely available as sauces, rubs, and dry spice. Peri-peri commonly contains crushed chillies, citrus peel, tarragon, basil, pimento, bay leaves, paprika, salt, onion, garlic, pepper, and lemon juice.
This African spice is quickly gaining popularity around the world, and it’s best known for its use in poultry. Peri-peri chili seeds are high in vitamins A, B, and C. Capsaicin, for example, enhances mood by dilation of pupils, increased metabolic rate, and the release of endorphins when consumed. It has been grown in the wild for generations in Africa, according to African Dream Foods, and is now professionally farmed in Zambia, Uganda, Malawi, Zimbabwe, and Rwanda.
The key growth areas are Malawi, Zambia, South Africa, Ghana, Nigeria, Zimbabwe, Mozambique, and Portugal. It’s grown for both commercial food processing and therapeutic purposes. Schizophrenia, anxiety, and depression are the most common conditions treated with peri-peri.